As an indispensable part of the application system, RFID readers will be related to the cost of successful implementation and implementation of the customer project. It is best to go through a rigorous process to ensure the project’s selection. success. Next, I will give you a detailed explanation of the reader information.

Classification

RFID readers can be divided into 125K, 13.56M, 900M, 2.4G and other frequency band readers according to the frequency.
125K: Generally called LF, it is easy to use and low in price. It can be mainly used in the management of animal husbandry.
13.56M: Generally called HF, it has strong confidentiality and fast reading speed. The close-range 13.56mhz RFID has good confidentiality, and the long distance 13.56mhz is stable and fast. Mainly used in home school, personnel attendance management, entrance and exit management, books, archives anti-theft management, government conference sign-in.
900M: Generally called UHF, the communication distance is long, the anti-collision performance is good, and it is generally used as parking lot and logistics.
2.4G: Microwave segment RFID reader, strong penetrability.
5.8G: Microwave segment RFID reader, used in highway ETC electronic toll collection system.

Advantage
First of all, it is necessary to pay attention to the frequency range of the reader device to see if it meets the frequency specification of the project place of use;
Second, understand whether the maximum transmit power of the reader and the matching antenna are over-standard;
Third, look at the number of antenna ports that the reader has, depending on whether the application requires a multi-interface reader/writer;
Fourth, whether the communication interface meets the needs of the project;
Fifth, the interpretation of the distance and anti-collision indicators, read distance indicators should be clear what antenna and label test; anti-collision should be clear what label in what arrangement how long after reading;
Sixth, an RFID application system is related to the reader, but also related to the label, the antenna, the material of the labelled item, the moving speed of the labelled item, the surrounding environment, etc., and it is better to simulate the scene before determining the device. Testing and verification to ensure that the product truly meets the application needs;
Seventh, the stability of the continuous test equipment under simulated conditions ensures stable operation for a long time;
Eighth, look at whether the development materials meet the system development needs, it is best to support the system you use, and it is best to have related routines. If it is not supported, the development time will be very long, and even the development will not continue.

The Manchester code is a type of signal frequency coding. He uses a random value of each bit at the half-period edge to represent a binary value. Thus the middle rising edge of the symbol time corresponds to a binary value of 0 and the falling edge corresponds to a binary value of one. The bit rate is equivalent to the communication bandwidth. The intermediate transition of the symbol time is very important when receiving the sync signal, especially when the multiple cards are within the operating range of the RFID reader, the anti-collision detection process is more important. However, the Manchester code has a higher bandwidth than other encoding methods. Furthermore, the Manchester code during encoding ensures that the data encoding is independent of the encoding of the previous data.

The encoding of the two main baseband signals is given below.

(1) In the encoding of the level, the binary values ​​correspond to the high and low voltages of the signal level, respectively. For example, one of the simplest coding methods, non return to zero (NRZ), has a logic high level with a binary value of 1, and a logic low level with a binary value of 0. To avoid a series of consecutive Signals caused by 0 or 1 are out of sync and difficult to reconstruct the time reference. After each binary value, the signal will fall back to 0 volts. This code is return to zero (RZ). A positive pulse pair is used for a binary value of 1, whose duration is equal to half the symbol time, and in other cases the signal is low logic level. In addition, the encoding of the data. (NRZ or RZ) is independent of previous data encoding.

(2) In the coding of signal hopping, the binary number corresponds to the change of the two voltage levels of the signal; the information is included in the hopping of the signal, and the encoding of the data is related to the previous data encoding. Clock synchronization under this encoding type is easier than in the encoding type of the level.

1 Manchester code is a kind of signal frequency modulation code. He represents a binary value with the instantaneous value of each bit at the half-period edge, so the middle rising edge of the symbol time corresponds to a binary value of 0, and the falling edge corresponds to a binary value of 1. The bit rate is equivalent to the communication bandwidth. The intermediate transition of the symbol time is very important when receiving the sync signal, especially when the multiple cards are within the operating range of the RFID reader, the anti-collision detection process is more important. However, the Manchester code has a higher bandwidth than other encoding methods. Furthermore, the Manchester code during encoding ensures that the data encoding is independent of the encoding of the previous data.

The 2 Miller code is another type of hopping code that encodes the binary value 1 using the intermediate hop of the symbol time. If a consecutive 0 bit occurs, a transition is added at the beginning of the symbol time, which ensures that there is a change in logic level after at least two symbol time periods. The other is called “Muller Code”, which is a variant of the Miller code, which is the same as the Miller code principle, but with a negative pulse instead of every jump, the bandwidth required to transmit such code is higher than the previous one. The code should be wide. The encoding of the previous data must be considered in Miller coding.

The 3 biphasic interval code is similar to the Miller code, which performs phase reversal at the beginning of each symbol time period, indicating 1. If the level has a phase reversal in the middle of the symbol time in addition to the inversion at the beginning of the period, it represents 0. Compared with the Miller code, this encoding mechanism can better synchronize the encoded data
when receiving the signal. The FM0 code is similar to the Miller code, and the previous coded data is also considered.

Other coding methods transmit information by pulse time modulation. In this type of coding, pulse width modulation, pulse position modulation, and pulse interval coding are commonly used.

(1) Pulse width modulation (PWM). The pulses are regularly spaced equal amplitude signals and their length is proportional to the signal period. The PWM code associates the binary value with the positive pulse length. At the end of the symbol time, the level usually goes back to low and then to the high point before starting a new code.

(2) Pulse position modulation (PPM). The information is encoded according to the position of the pulse. The PPM code uses a negative pulse to encode a logic one. Unlike the modified Miller code, a continuous logic 0 is typically encoded with a constant high level. The n-bit logical word can be encoded by using a ppm code of order n accordingly. The position of the pulse in the time period determines the code word. However, any word must be encoded by the position of the negative pulse: it is impossible to find a constant level for the entire symbol time. Compared with the Manchester code, the coding mode has a relatively narrow bandwidth and is easy to implement, but the coding mode has a low data rate.

(3) Pulse interval coding (PIE). It is a variant of PPM modulation in which the reader generates two falling edges to determine the interval of the pulses, which is a function of the binary numbers 0 and 1.

The coding techniques for RFID information must consider the following constraints:

1. The code must preserve the energy transfer for as long as possible.

2. Encoding can’t consume too much bandwidth.

3. If there are several RFID tags in the operating range of the reader, the code should be able to detect conflicts of interest.

Since PPM, PIE and PWM coding have relatively stable signals, the first two constraints can be satisfied. However, it should also be noted that the Manchester code can be more easily detected as a collision, so this encoding is typically used in the return link where the RFID tag sends data to the reader.

The NRZ code and the Miller code encode the lowest bandwidth, and their bandwidth is only half of the data bit rate bandwidth. This is followed by Manchester code, FM0 code and RZ code.
Their bandwidth and communication traffic are the same.

Selecting the binary code requires consideration of the remote power supply problem. The carrier signal should be as long as possible to meet the remote power supply requirements. In this case, the NRZ or the code can be used. Considering the data interaction between the iRFID tag and the reader, it is important to detect the response contained in the feedback signal. Encoding that allows the Manchester code to be hopped during the symbol time period simplifies the task.

In the 1998 foreign media magazine, Chris Hook, Strategy Manager of TIRIS Department of Texas Instruments and Equipment Corporation, published an article entitled “The Nature and Development of Smart Labels”, expounding the nature and development of smart labels. He defines “smart tags” as: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices are designed to securely identify and track a wide range of commodity categories in the commercial and foreign markets, and export logistics information to a common thin and light On the label. “Smart” refers to the layered data embedded in the label printing material during the label production process, so that the label has new features, such as non-contact, non-line-of-sight reading and design programming, dynamic data storage, and instant and effective intercommunication with other similar labels. The ability of information.

Perhaps from this point on, when it comes to smart tags, the first thing people think of is RFID tags.

RFID is the abbreviation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. According to the data, RFID technology originated in the United Kingdom, and its technical basis is radar technology. It was first used in the second world war to identify the enemy and the enemy in air operations. At that time, the United Kingdom used RFID technology to confirm whether the incoming aircraft was a self-propelled aircraft to avoid accidental strikes. The basic system configuration of this technique includes a transmitter, a receiver and a corresponding antenna. Now, the RFID transmitter is replaced by a tag, the receiver evolves into an RFID tag reader, and the antenna is built into the tag.

In fact, RFID was originally set up as an electronic product that is completely different from the traditional label, but was given the definition of the shape and label of the tag (in English, the term used in RFID tags is tag, and Not the label of the label). But the label industry is an industry full of enthusiasm for new things. This label-like electronic product quickly attracted the attention of the label industry and applied it to the manufacture of labels, making it a breakthrough in the era of intelligentization.

At the beginning of the birth, the application of RFID was limited to the military. According to the data, since the 1990s, this technology has been widely used by the US military in weapons and logistics management systems. The United States used RFID in the “Iraq War” to deploy weapons and materials very precisely to ensure the accurate supply of front-line ammunition and materials. The US military, which tasted the sweetness, stipulated in 2005 that all military supplies used RFID tags. This is actually a form of combining RFID technology with tags.

The application in the civil field is currently known to date back to the 1960s. However, at that time, although some people applied the technology to the commercial field, the application was very narrow, and it was only experimental, far from being a large-scale application. In the 1980s and 1990s, with the maturity of related technologies, Europe took the lead in enabling RFID technology in highway toll systems. This is the first time that the technology has been scaled up in the civilian market. The first to apply RFID technology to the retail industry is Wal-Mart. After the widespread use of RFID tags in malls and warehouse distribution centers, the shortage of Wal-Mart goods and the short-term out-of-stocks of goods have been greatly reduced, greatly increasing consumer satisfaction.

In the 21st century, with the breakthrough of international standardization of RFID technology, the application of RFID has also ushered in a new stage. In the fields of retail, road toll, logistics, cargo tracking, access control, parking management, identification, aviation, etc., the application of RFID technology is more and more extensive; in addition, in some reports, RFID is also applied in production automation. The industrial practical case; and one of the cases I personally experienced was the discovery of RFID tags on a very expensive foreign original book purchased.

If you only say RFID, you may feel too abstract and have no concept, but if you talk about ETC automatic payment on China’s expressway, ID card for everyone, card swipe during community security patrol, baggage check bag when flying, etc. I believe that everyone is certainly no stranger, and these are specific application examples of RFID technology.

The biggest feature of RFID technology is the recognition function, which can make each item have its own unique identification feature by means of the storage function of the label itself. The identification of the tagged item can be completed by reading the information stored in the RFID tag through the reader. RFID technology has made outstanding contributions to improving the anti-counterfeiting, anti-counterfeiting and anti-smuggling properties of products.

rfid product

RFID intelligent production uses novel, comprehensive, advanced and intelligent production management to collect data through various technologies of the Internet of Things. RFID automatic induction acquisition technology realizes the inventory of materials, transportation, product inspection, especially the process control of the production process, and optimizes the efficient management of the entire production line. The application of RFID technology in production control realizes the visualization and intelligence of the production line. RFID opens a new chapter in the field of intelligent manufacturing.

In the traditional manufacturing industry, RFID electronic tags have many advantages over the currently widely used bar code technology. The advantages of RFID electronic tags include:
simultaneous reading of multiple tags; wireless long-distance reading and writing; penetrability reading and writing; reading and writing in high-speed moving state; storing more data information; in harsh environments Use below. RFID technology is not just a simple replacement of bar code technology, its application in manufacturing will change the way of manufacturing operations. RFID technology has begun to be applied to supply chain management, warehouse management, material management, etc. in the manufacturing industry.

The visualization of the production line enables the management of the company to discover the operating status of the raw products and production lines in real time. The system is mainly composed of assembly lines, RFID data acquisition systems, work-in-progress and workstations. After the raw product moves on the assembly line, the worker removes the recycled product and assembles the spare parts after the work station is completed. After the completion, the return line is placed until all the processes are completed. The system mainly includes two fixed RFID readers. Each product is tagged with an RFID tag.

RFID production control process: When the in-progress product with the RFID electronic tag passes through the RFID reader A and the RFID reader B in sequence, the RFID reader will read the RFID electronic tag information on the product and The data is uploaded to the system host computer to determine the completion of the raw products and the operation of each station. When the raw product passes through the RFID reader antenna A without passing through the RFID reader antenna B, it indicates that the product bound by the label is too long. The system
will compare and alert according to the time set in advance.

In the raw product monitoring, the RFID electronic tag data on the raw product is obtained in real time to determine the work station where the product is located and the completed process.
Assuming that there are N processes in the production line of a certain product, the monitoring method of the production status of the raw products is as follows:

1. When the raw product is put on the line, according to the manufacturing requirements of the raw product, determine the number N of processes, and determine the order of the stations (123…n) to generate a binary code, which is the order of the lowest order. The completion status of the bit, completed as 1, and not completed as 0. When the work is on the line, its initial value is 0.
2. Write the code to the RFID tag and bind it to the product.
3. Modify the corresponding bit code every time the raw product completes the process and leaves the station.
4. Read the corresponding code of the RFID electronic tag to determine the completed process and the process being completed.

The goal of production process control is to statically or dynamically determine the assembly route and assembly method of the raw product based on the raw product information. The basic
principle is: real-time detection of the assembly route and assembly according to the control system after the raw product information is detected. Way, generate path selection instructions and
assembly prompts. The system is mainly composed of RFID data acquisition system, station controller, kanban and path selection actuator.

The assembly route of the in-process product can be either a static route that is established before going online, or a dynamic route that is temporarily changed after going online. Using the
concept of “virtual production line”, each virtual product is assigned a virtual production line. A virtual line is generated according to the assembly requirements of the raw product. Bind the live
product code and the virtual production line in the RFID tag and then bind the tag to the product. When multi-path selection is made in the raw product, the reader reads the product code in the
tag and determines the next station based on the information in the virtual line. The advantage of this algorithm is that when it is necessary to change the manufacturing process of the raw
product, it is only necessary to change the virtual production line and the work position relationship stored in the controller to facilitate the dynamic control of the assembly path.

In the field of intelligent manufacturing, RFID technology realizes intelligent management and control of production processes and traceability, production tracking and counting. In the
manufacturing process management of manufacturing, thereby improving the visibility and controllability of the manufacturing process of the workshop and increasing the production efficiency
of the enterprise.

rfid technology inlay

With the rapid development of the retail service industry, the number of goods transported, the scale of logistics and distribution is constantly expanding, and the use of logistics turnover boxes is also increasing. How to make the assets of the turnover box not to be lost, the loss, etc. are important problems to be solved. RFID technology binds identity information to each tote, thereby reducing the cost of tote management and avoiding a large loss of the tote. It not only improves the efficiency of logistics operations, but also ensures asset security.

Turnover boxes are particularly important in the catering industry because of the serious shortage of dishwashing workers and the reduction of cost and the standard of hygiene for dishware. As the hygiene standards of the catering industry have been receiving much attention and facing the major test of the catering industry, the central dishwashing service industry has emerged as the times require. The turnover box for food and beverage distribution has become an important object of asset protection, not only in the transportation of food and beverage trays, but also in the efficient management of assets and inventory.

In order to improve the efficiency and quality of the cleaning table system, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the catering company have developed a logistics monitoring system that operates using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. In addition to RFID technology, the system also uses Internet of Things technology and cloud computing. And a variety of technologies are constructed.

Each tableware logistics box is labeled with a heat-resistant, waterproof RFID tag. When the tableware passes the checkpoint, the RFID reader reads the data and transmits it to the system. Retrieving, transporting, and cleaning from the cutlery box allows the user to grasp the progress in real time. The system can also recognize the cutlery box by radio waves.

After years of development, RFID technology has become increasingly mature, but to be applied in different industries, it needs to be specially designed to meet the needs of users. This dishwashing system using RFID technology for crop flow monitoring needs to take care of the operating environment of the partner company, and the details of the workflow, the choice of RFID tags, the type and number of readers, and the position and angle adjustment of the antenna installation. Software coordination, etc., must be considered together.

The RFID technology quickly realizes a control of the entire process of distribution, forward reception, turnover of the totes, and reverse recovery in the warehouse. RFID is an automatic collection of RFID electronic tags on the totes, so that the warehousing operations, automatic statistical inventory, etc., not only speed is very fast, effectively improve the efficiency of control, thereby saving a lot of labor costs. RFID technology is bringing a huge revolution in the supply chain, simplifying complex workflows and improving the efficiency and transparency of the supply chain.

A 2018 Mobile Payment User Survey Report shows:

In 2018, 80.1% of users used mobile payments every day, up 1.4% from 2017, and 89.1% of users were able to accept bar code payments.
The so-called bar code payment here is a two-dimensional code payment represented by Alipay and WeChat payment.
However, the two-dimensional code payment continues to have security risks. If the security problem cannot be solved, will the QR code payment in the future be ebb tide? And will NFC, which has a long-term safety factor and security factor, go to the leading stage? Today this article may be Will give you the answer~

1. Security is a problem that cannot be crossed by QR code payment.
When it comes to mobile payments, more will come to Alipay and WeChat payments. In fact, the current mobile communication portal communication technology is divided into two camps: QR code and NFC. In China, the emergence of Alipay and WeChat payment has changed people’s payment habits, and NFC, which started very early, has not broken out. On the contrary, the rising star QR code has swept like a tornado, accounting for more than 90% of the mobile payment market. Nowadays, regardless of large shopping malls, parking lots, vegetable markets or even roadside stalls, the checkout counters in the streets and alleys are equipped with QR code payment codes. It is popular because it is convenient.
But convenience and security do not seem to be directly proportional, users are also taking risks while enjoying convenience. Cases in which QR codes have been stolen are constantly emerging. For example, some lawless elements replace their payment codes with the merchant’s QR code, or forge the official QR code, causing money to flow into the fraudster’s hands; secretly scanning the user’s payment code. Pirates are swiped; sometimes the scan code will jump to the phishing website or even the QR code will hide the virus.
Another serious flaw is that the QR code payment requires network support. If there is no wifi in the environment and the mobile phone does not have a network signal, then the payment cannot be made.
If the relevant state departments do not incorporate the QR code into the safe market supervision in the future and ensure the security of the user’s payment information, the QR code payment cannot continue to leap forward.

2. Security is the “trump card” of NFC
Compared with two-dimensional code payment, NFC technology has a higher level of payment security, is more convenient, and the technology is more mature. First, the NFC payment distance is within 10 cm, and the confidentiality and security of data transmission are guaranteed. Secondly, the NFC mobile phone adopts the combination of SE chip hardware encryption and software encryption, and the data transmission such as ID and key can be completed in less than 0.1 seconds, and the security of payment is greatly guaranteed.
However, the industrial chain involved in NFC is relatively complicated. It requires not only NFC chips and mobile phone manufacturers, but also financial institutions such as clearing houses and banks.
I still remember that NFC started as early as a decade ago, but the standards have always been inconsistent.
Finally, under the efforts of UnionPay and terminal manufacturers, several mobile phones supported NFC in 2012, but at the time, more than 90% of mobile phones did not have NFC functions, and the cost of retrofitting was high.
Therefore, NFC is moving towards the whole people, and it is stuck in the terminal first.

Furthermore, since the NFC mobile payment method is based on the NFC chip, in addition to the mobile terminal, the merchant also needs to be equipped with an NFC-enabled terminal device, and the cost is not low.
This is also one reason why NFC has not been widely promoted.

In addition, NFC users have fewer use scenarios, and NFC in China faces the obstacle of users using QR code payment habits.
However, with the upgrade of smart phones, NFC has gradually become a standard. At the end of June, China UnionPay joined hands with OPPO, Huawei, Xiaomi and other six mobile phone manufacturers to promote mobile phone flash payment.
At the same time, with the development of Internet of Things technology, bus cards, bank cards and even access cards can be loaded into mobile phones, liberating people from many cards, the technology required is NFC.

All in all, in the face of the user-based QR code payment, NFC still has a long way to go.

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Reviewing the construction and development process of the toll collection system accompanying the highway construction for 20 years, it has experienced development and reform from the aspects of charging system, charging method, and pass ticket. The networked electronic non-stop charging is the most advanced charging technology method. Bright debut and constantly upgraded to the whole line, and every stage of development in this process has achieved a lot of experience and results, all of which have condensed the efforts of many colleagues in many departments, is the crystallization of the collective wisdom of the industry.

Charging system

The introduction of the highway toll system into China is, first of all, how to determine the charging system that suits China’s national conditions. The choice and determination of the charging system is the basis and core of the highway toll system, and should be based on the principle of obtaining maximum economic benefits and facilitating the attraction of traffic.

1.Closed

Looking back on the mid-to-late 1990s, with the development of highways leaping, most of the highways that have been opened to traffic have adopted a large-scale operation mode of “integration and management”, which is almost unlimited by the investment and financing system. Based on this large background, the closed type has gradually become the mainstream system of highway tolls in China. After years of development, it has basically been recognized by the road industry inside and outside. At present, only some road sections are subject to historical limitations. Mixed or open.

2.Open

The open type is mainly applied to ordinary toll roads such as most secondary roads. In the 1980s, the more than 300 kilometers of Zhongshan Expressway in Taiwan Province was also open-ended. In addition, in the western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, due to the constraints of high-grade highway standards and traffic volume distribution in the early stage of construction, different sections have been selected for different sections. For example, the Turpan-Urumqi-Dahuangshan high-grade highway is Open style.

3.Mixed

Hybrid is mainly applied to individual shorter expressways, mainly to improve charging efficiency, reduce the setting of main line stations, and reduce operating costs. For example, the Beijing-Shenyang Expressway Hebei Langfang Expressway, the Beijing Capital Airport Expressway, the Nanjing Airport Expressway, and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Urumqi-Kuiyu Expressway are hybrid.

Charging method

The charging method is a general term for which technical level and technical scheme are used to charge after the charging system is determined. Since the introduction of toll facilities into the expressway, the charging method has gone through a process from low to high, from simple to rich. Looking back on the development process of highway toll collection system, the charging methods mainly include manual charging method, artificial semi-automatic charging method and electronic non-stop charging method. The metering and charging method can also be applied to trucks as needed.

1.Manual charging method

The manual charging method is based on the paper fee receipt stub as the basis for the payment of the toll collector. It relies entirely on the manual charging method for the charging operation and the charging data statistics management. In the early closed toll road section, the entrance fee and the export inspection ticket are basically adopted in many places. Charge management program. With the advancement of technology and the improvement of management requirements, the manual charging method has basically withdrawn from the historical stage.

2.Artificial semi-automatic charging method

The artificial semi-automatic charging method is “manually discriminating models, manual charging, detector checking, closed-circuit television monitoring, non-contact IC cartoon coupons and computer management”. This charging method has become the mainstream mode of highway toll charging at present stage. Most provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) have implemented provincial or provincial highway toll collection fees in accordance with artificial semi-automatic charging methods, and their technical solutions, technical standards and operational management models have matured.

3.Electronic non-stop charging method

The electronic non-stop charging method uses the advanced technology such as dedicated short-range communication as the means to automatically complete the electronic toll transaction, and automatically collects the road toll fee without parking. This method adopts the “two-piece electronic label + dual interface CPU card” technology. The CPU card is used as an extended storage medium for a two-piece electronic tag with an IC interface, and has the functions of a pass ticket and a payment medium, thereby realizing compatibility between the electronic non-stop charging system and the artificial semi-automatic charging system, and realizing the setting of electronic charging. For the dedicated lane site, the user can use the two-piece electronic tag to pass through without stopping; in the site where only the manual toll lane is set, the user can use the dual interface CPU card to pay for the card and pass the parking mode.

In October 2003, Guangdong Province implemented the implementation of the networked electronic non-stop charging system project in accordance with local standards; in May 2007, the national electronic non-stop charging technical standard GB/T20851.1~6 “Electronic toll-specific short-range communication” The series of standards has been released and implemented. This standard has fixed the results of China’s independent research and development of electronic non-stop charging standards for many years, laying a solid foundation for the development of China’s electronic non-stop charging technology; in December 2007, Fujian Province in accordance with the province The implementation of the national standard opened the first phase of the networked electronic non-stop charging system. In developed countries such as Europe and Japan, toll stations usually have both semi-automatic toll lanes and non-stop toll lanes, and there are almost no toll stations with only one non-stop toll lane. It can be foreseen that for a long time in the future, highway toll charging must be a situation in which artificial semi-automatic charging methods and electronic non-stop charging methods coexist for a long time, and the electronic non-stop charging method is the mainstream mode of the next phase of network charging.

4.Weighted charging method

The weight-based charging method uses the measured axle load, wheelbase, and number of axles in the field to collect vehicle tolls based on the total weight of the vehicle. This method is mainly for manual identification of truck models in manual semi-automatic toll collection. A charging method proposed by the “big ton small standard”, “one car multiple certificate”, “overrun and overload transportation” and other drawbacks. In September 2005, the competent department of communications under the State Council issued the “Guiding Opinions on the Trial of Tolls for Toll Roads”, aiming at the adjustment and improvement of the classification of truck models with manual semi-automatic toll collection methods. It is a fair, reasonable and scientific way of collecting tolls. Since the beginning of 2004, 19 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) have implemented highway toll collection fees.

Pass

The closed type is charged according to the actual mileage of the vehicle, so the pass must be used as the basis for calculating the toll of the vehicle. Looking back on the 20-year history of highway toll system construction and development, various types of passes can be introduced and developed. For example, one-time pass tickets include pre-printed paper passes, paper print tickets, paper punch cards, and paper. Reusable pass coupons include magnetic pass cards, contact IC pass cards and non-contact IC pass cards, such as magnetic magnetic pass coupons, paper 1D barcodes and paper 2D barcodes. After many years of practice verification, the Technical Requirements for Toll Road Networking Charges finally determined that the pass ticket uses three types: non-contact IC pass card, disposable paper magnetic coupon and two-dimensional bar code. Other forms of pass tickets eventually withdraw from the historical stage.

Networking charge

The Interim Technical Requirements for Expressway Networking Charges, which was promulgated and implemented in October 2000, has greatly promoted the domestic network charging. It basically solved the shortcomings of “one case, one discussion” in highway toll collection and broke through the construction management system. The restrictions have enabled provincial or provincial regional network charges. By the end of 2007, 27 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) including Jiangsu, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Chongqing, Hunan, Fujian, and Jiangxi had implemented provincial or intra-provincial regional highway tolls, and the total mileage of networked charges was about 52,000 kilometers. . Recalling the development history of highway toll collection, it can be summarized into three stages: provincial or provincial regional network charging, inter-provincial national highway main line charging and current inter-provincial regional economic circle charging.

1. Provincial or provincial regional network charges

In the development process of highway toll collection, the toll operation mode established by the 143-kilometer Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu Expressway, which was completed and opened to traffic in 1993, should not be forgotten. Although the investment and construction of the Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu Expressway involves Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei provinces, in order to reduce the main line station, the two cities and one province use the Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu Expressway as an asset to form a franchise company that crosses the provinces and cities in accordance with the line-based joint charges- Huabei Expressway Co., Ltd. unified the implementation of toll operation management, which laid a good start for highway management.

Typical representative provinces for provincial network charging are Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Chongqing and other provinces and cities. Taking Zhejiang as an example, starting in 2002, the province’s expressways were used as a road network to implement network charging, and a network-based charging management center was set up to take charge of the technical services such as settlement and allocation of highway tolls in the province. IC card is the core artificial semi-automatic network charging technology, research and development of unified network charging software, any toll fee income, split within 48 hours into the financial account of each road company, the traveler is stuck in one hand. Zhejiang. The typical representative provinces for regional network charging in the province are Jiangsu, Guangdong and other provinces. In 2002, Jiangsu began to use the Yangtze River as the boundary, using the Jiangyin Highway Bridge on the Yangtze River and the Nanjing Second Bridge and other main line stations to divide the province’s expressways into two road networks in southern Jiangsu and northern Jiangsu to implement networked tolls. Jointly set up a network charging management committee with the nature of industry associations to jointly manage the specific affairs within the road network, and set up a network charging management center in Sunan and North Jiangsu respectively, using artificial semi-automatic network charging technology with non-contact IC card as the core. .

In 2003, Guangdong Province divided the province’s expressway network into six districts in western Guangdong, northern Guangdong, eastern Guangdong, Guangzhou, the Pearl River Delta and Shenzhen, and established a networked toll franchise company that is not for profit. The government granted its networked toll franchise, unified responsibility for the province’s road network charging and electronic non-stop charging implementation and technical support work, and the network charging technology adopted a combined electronic system based on “two-piece electronic label + dual interface CPU card”. The parking fee technology has established a mandatory local standard “Guangdong Province Expressway Networking Toll System”. The province uses a non-cash payment card in a toll station with a large traffic volume to realize the electronic card “one card”.

2.Cross-provincial national highway main line network charges

Provincial or provincial regional network charging charges only solve the problem of segmental construction section charging, and realize the network charging of highways under the jurisdiction of administrative divisions, breaking through the restrictions of the highway construction management system. In October 2003, the Ministry of Transport organized and implemented the inter-provincial national highway main line Beijing-Shenyang Expressway network toll demonstration project, in accordance with the “full line networking, district settlement” program, the Beijing-Shenyang Hebei Langfang section, Tianjin section, Hebei Baoshan section And the 5 sections of the West Outer Ring Road and the Tangjin Expressway in Tangshan, Hebei Province, form a toll road network to implement network charging, set up the Beijing-Shenzhen Internet Charge Settlement Center, and canceled the two provincial boundary line stations, not only breaking through the restrictions of the construction management system, but also breaking through Restrictions on administrative divisions. The opening of the Beijing-Shenyang demonstration project fully demonstrates the service concept of “people-oriented, car-oriented”, further enhancing the confidence of extensive and in-depth promotion of highway network charging, and also accumulating a complete set of cross-provincial national trunk line charging technology. Experience has laid a solid technical foundation for the further development of highway toll collection technology.

rfid tag for grocery cues

The workings of grocery shopping could change completely if and when the introduction of RFID tags on merchandise is put into place. Imagine putting all your purchases into a cart and simply walking out of the store with everything being automatically scanned because of RFID tags on each and every product. It will make your shopping trip a lot shorter and more importantly the worst part—standing in line-ups—will be completely eliminated.

Researchers from Shenzhen Smart-way Technology have come together and try to created an RFID tag that can be directly printed onto each grocery item just like a price tag. Items such as potato chips, cereal boxes, and even canned items will potentially be some of many products that will have a simple printed RFID tag somewhere on the surface of the packaging.

The tag is said to be a replacement for barcodes at the grocery stores and they can immediately scan the items as you are walking out and possibly could eliminate a line up of any sort altogether depending on how the RFID scanners would be mounted in the stores.

The way it will probably work, according to Researchers that are involved in the making process, is that you will simply have to walk past a detector, pay the amount on display and walk out.

The tags are made up of an ink laced with carbon nanotubes so that the codes can be printed onto plastic or paper that is used to cover any food product. Researchers are aiming to fit 96 bits into a tag the size of a business card.

In the future, the application of RFID tags will be very extensive, and our company will adhere to research and development and contribute to the smart industry.

uhf rfid UCODE 8 cloth washing tag

Laundry and linens services randomly disappear when you least expect it.

These products are used daily and then you look again and they are gone! This mystery has been solved with new technology that keeps an eye on these as well as giving you other benefits.

Radio frequency identification (RFID) can now provide commercial laundries a way to track these textiles.

“RFID is being used to track all sorts of items including, but not limited to, uniforms, scrubs, flat linen, terry, microfiber product, mats, tuxedos and more starting with the customer back to the plant, then back from the plant to the customer,” says Jeff Markman, president of Positek RFID.

When looking for visibility for inventory, RFID is the answer, he says. Where is the product? How long does it reside all the way through the process? How long does product last before it needs to be removed? Which product has been lost of destroyed?

“Not every company sees the same RFID benefits,” Markman says. “RFID in the linen space have been able to reduce inventory needed to service accounts properly, charge customers by each piece individually versus by weight, ability to charge for loss that exceeds a certain level and improved/increased quality.

Scott Sloan with Innovative Management Designs, who has a RFID software that tracks product, says RFID is not only for keeping track of product and counting inventory.

“Companies are starting to implement additional points to read for production, packaging and distribution/shipping,” he says. “One example is with manufacturing bundles of items. RFID gives you ways to inspect these bundles to assure each item is tagged, everything in the bundle is the same and the bundle count is correct.”

Laundry and linen services industry has been using RFID for some time now, according to Markman. The industry has seen the technology start in the low frequency (LF) at 125Khz to high frequency (HF) at 13.56 Mhz to ultra-high frequency (UHF) in the 900Mhz range.

“When we see frequencies change/enhance, the applications change along with it,” Markman says. “In the LF and HF world, the tags were small, hardened and round. The read ranges were 6 to 18 inches and went from single-read to multi-read applications.

He says the trying to read bulk products effectively and efficiently was very difficult. Then in 2010, UHF came to market.

“This new UHF frequency required a change in the format of tags to a rectangular shape,” says Markman. “UHF tags have read ranges of 10+ feet and read 10 times as fast as the latest HF tags.”

This new frequency allowed for quick scans of bulk items and the opportunity to develop solutions to read bulk items in carts, bags and slings. This allowed for a much improved garment solution, according to Markman.

“This allowed the textile maintenance companies to take inventory at a customer site, scan loads of articles and run their scanning processes of single items and bundles much faster,” he says. “Finally, it was apparent that this technology was ready for products like linen and terry. Some other applications such as reading soil in carts and on conveyors was now possible. Capturing a read when bundles and carts leave was now possible. Inventory at the customer was possible.”

Early on, adding RFID to products was considered an alternate, more modern version of a bar code, Sloan says. But that is just the beginning of what RFID can do. Increase in productivity is caused by a much faster count cycle.

“RFID development takes me back to the Internet browser days where Microsoft and Netscape had many releases that fixed previous issues and pain points while giving the user new features, he says.”

Multi-reader UHF tag accountability in regards to “chain of customer” of a product is easy to get, says Sloan. Laundries are able to track what is in-plant and where, as well as out-of-plant by route, customer, item, and for how long. Efficiencies gained with inventory control, making sure laundry and linen services have the proper linen level in stock, production and out in the field.

“Also, RFID costs have dropped to a point where the customers of laundries are starting to tag items and performing very similar tracking of how a laundry is returning and what was sent,” says Sloan.

RFID Tags come in all sorts of different sizes and shapes for many reasons, but the basics of how a tag is scanned and what information is gathered is effectively the same, according to Sloan.

“Your RFID vendor will assist you with assembling the best solution for your specific requirements,” he says. “The biggest challenge is ensuring your software vendor writes code so that it supports more than just one type of reader of chip.”

In regards to tracking, there is no difference in how the scanning happens. However, there are basic business processes that are different in what a laundry does when the tag is scanned, according to Sloan.

A hotel may wish to track what items are going out the front door, he says. Nice Turkish robes, for instance.

“Another vertical, healthcare, you may also want to track how many times a barrier gown is used before it is required to be removed from circulation or keeping track of where a cubicle curtain has been or washed for MRSA-related issues,” Sloan says.

UHF RFID tags are bit different, according to Markman. Some tags are suitable for use in MRI machines and some are not. Some tags can be reused easily and effectively.

He adds that some tags are sewn on and some tags are heat-sealed. Different classes of articles may require different attachment methods.

“Terry does not take a heat-seal very well. Heat-sealed tags may not survive repeated processing through a flatwork ironer,” he says. “An RFID tag that has been heat-sealed is much harder to reuse. Manufacturers of products now offer RFID-tagged product, minimizing the labor associated with starting up an RFID system.”

There are three things a laundry and linen service needs to get started using RFID, says Sloan. RFID tags, readers, and software that support the technology as well as the businesses that need to be reached.

He cautions, however, that there is much more involved in using RFID: “You just can’t slap tags on items and ‘bang,’ RFID is active,” Sloan says. “You should set a meeting/call with an RFID vendor. They will walk you through the steps to implement an RFID system and improve your operation.”

LF,HF,UHF rfid technology

So, you want to implement an RFID technology into your process or business? Do you know which technology you want to use? There are a few different options that are available. Do you know what they are? I will give you a few different types to think about before you implement. Each one has it’s pros and cons. It really does depend on your application, environment, etc… The first four technologies below will utilize a reader/antenna system. BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) uses a wireless personal area network technology. So, for example, you can use a tablet or phone to pair using the Bluetooth technology you are currently familiar with when pairing to headphones, speakers, etc.. NFC (Near Field Communication) uses a technology based on the smartphone or tablet market. So, when you use Android Pay or other payment types using your phone, it will use the NFC technology.

LF (Low Frequency)
LF or Low Frequency uses the frequency ranges of 30 kHz to 300 kHz. Read ranges in this frequency will get about 1 foot. LF radio waves exhibit low signal attenuation. Its main use in North America is for aircraft beacon, navigation (LORAN), information, and weather systems. A number of time signal broadcasts are also broadcast in this band.

HF (High Frequency)
HF or High Frequency uses the frequency ranges of 3 MHz to 30 MHz. These are referred to as passive tags. This means that they are dormant until an antenna generates a signal which wakes up the tag to communicate. No battery, so cost is usually lower. The typical frequency used in the RFID market using this technology is 13.56 MHz. These HF tags typically have a good amount of memory and come in all sorts of different sizes and shapes. These tags are good for applications where read distances are close, a maximum of ~1.5 meters. The other positive factor for this is the frequency range and technology are recognized globally. This makes it a heavy choice when you are dealing with products internationally and don’t want to worry about different frequency ranges depending on which country you are working with.

UHF (Ultra High Frequency)
UHF or Ultra High Frequency uses the frequency ranges of 865 MHz to 928 MHz. These are referred to as passive tags. This means that they are dormant until an antenna generates a signal which wakes up the tag to communicate. No battery, so cost is usually lower. The typical frequency for Europe would be 868 MHz and for the US it would be 915 MHz. Using this frequency range will give you longer read distances, if that is what you are looking for. Gen 2 will get you a maximum of ~12 meters. This range seems to be the most popular, which drives the cost down. Again, all sorts of shapes and sizes can be available.

Some target markets would be:
low power requirements, operating for “months or years” on a button cell
small size and low cost
compatibility with a large installed base of mobile phones, tablets and computers
NFC (Near Field Communication)

NFC or Near Field Communication typically uses a smartphone or tablet that has NFC capabilities. Read ranges are typically ~1.6 inches or closer. NFC devices are used in contactless payment systems, similar to those used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards and allow mobile payment to replace/supplement these systems. This is sometimes referred to as NFC/CTLS (Contactless) or CTLS NFC. NFC is used for social networking, for sharing contacts, photos, videos or files. NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identity documents and keycards. NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections

These are just a few things to consider when thinking about implementing a new technology into your current application/environment. We get many inquiries regarding this exact topic. Which technology would be best for me? The answer to this question will differ from each and every application. A proper study and review of your current processes and how you would like to see the process once you implement an RFID/NFC/BLE technology. If you have further questions, please do not hesitate to use our Contact Us page and we will respond to your application specifically!